Ultimate Guide To Photography Basics, Techniques, Purposes, Tips & How-To

Photography is one of the best things that a person can do in order to bring out his creativity as well as capture moments which are unlikely to be seen again. It’s a way to store one’s memories as well as astonishing views that the mother nature and human creations show in a tangible form.

In technical terms, “Photography is the science, art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film” (Source: Wikipedia).

There are 2 other terms associated with photography. Namely, these are a “photographer”, and a “photograph”. A photographer is a person who captures or creates a photograph by applying the phenomena of photography. On the other hand, a photograph is an image that is the major end result obtained by a photographer using photography.

Surprisingly, in today’s modern world, the concept of photography is applied in various fields for a number of purposes. Most commonly photography is used in the field of science, fine arts, video and film production, and manufacturing. Apart from this photography is also one of the most common recreational activities among people all over the globe.

In fact, photography has moved towards commercialization and there are several photography courses available online as well as offline for teaching people how to take a proper photograph using a number of photography techniques.




The term “techniques of photography” or “photography techniques” bring up 2 perspectives in mind. One is the technical modes in which a photograph can be taken and the second is the ways in which it is possible to capture a photograph. Generally, both of them are referred to as techniques of photography but in order to differentiate it, we will be referring the ways of photography as to the concepts of photography.


Broadly there are 3 technical modes of photography which are most commonly used. In other words, a photograph is usually taken or captured using 3 techniques of photography. These are:


digital photography

The technique of digital photography is perhaps one of the most popular modes of photography. Technically, digital photography involves capturing an image using a camera. The camera used for digital photography contains a number of arrays of electronic photodetectors which enables it to capture an image that is focused on it from a lens. The files thus captured are stored in a digital format on a digital memory. Popular formats of such images include jpg, jpeg, png etc. This model has revolutionized the concept of photography to its greatest extent and is by far the most effective, efficient and easiest way to capture an image in most of the cases.


3d or stereoscopic photography

The mode of stereoscopic photography was the first ever technique to capture objects in a motion. The idea behind this photography technique is to depict an image in the way as seen by human eyes. In order to accomplish this, a photograph is taken and displayed as two (2) side by side images. 3-D or stereoscopic photography mode has been integrated into a lot of daily use infotainment devices. The best example of this is the camera of your cell phone or smartphone.


light field photography

Apart from the digital and 3-D photography modes, there are many others which are popularly used either for specific or general purposes all over the globe. For instance, light field photography technique is used where focusing at various depth levels is required because it renders 5-D photography.

Similarly, a photocopy is used for creating permanent imagery on some tangible matter usually paper through the transfer of static electrical charges. Contrary to the common belief of many people, photography is possible without the help of a camera and there are many methods to accomplish this objective with the help of technological advancement.


Concepts of photography refer to the ways in which a photograph can be taken. In simpler terms, it refers to the ideal conditions, filters or particular situations of the surroundings or the subject in which a picture is clicked.

There are tons of concepts to photography and their number is on a continuous rise. These concepts are usually derived from the creativity of a person or with the help of a certain research. Some of the most common and beautiful concepts of photography include:


low light photography

The craze of low light photography is definitely on a rise both in professional photographers as well as common people. This is mainly due to its ultimate attraction and appeal if the photograph is of a respectable quality. As the name suggests, this sort of photography is done in the absence of daylight.


black and white photography

This concept of photography is focused towards adding a traditional touch towards the modern technology. Interestingly, this touch is really impressive in most cases. The idea behind it is to convert a normal photograph into 2 specific colors only i.e black and white. This concept is extremely successful in conveying deep emotions.


portrait photography

Portrait photography or its new popular modern way known as a “selfie” is currently the most popular concept of photography. People all over the world love to take selfies and apps such as Snapchat has enabled it to become a new concept of social media as well. On the traditional outlook, it is similar to portrait art making. It’s the same idea followed in a further enhanced digital form.


high speed photography

High speed is one of the most interesting photography concepts. The idea behind it is to capture high-speed moments that are nearly invisible to the human eye. This concept of photography is fairly new and it requires professional photography experience and a lot of patience in order to produce photographs that hold some commercial value.


panoramic photography

It is a belief among photographers that in order to take panoramic photographs, specific and expensive photography equipment is necessary.

However, that is not entirely true.

But yes, if you want to produce commercial panoramic photographs then the specific equipment is recommended but for normal photographs, it is not compulsory. The idea behind panoramic photography is to capture a wide landscape in a single picture. This is possible and commonly done with the help of panoramic stitching. Panoramic stitching involves taking a series of photographs (side-by-side) and then merging them together to form the original picture.

This technique, although effective, but has its own drawbacks.




Photography is helpful in a lot of fields and there are various purposes as to why photography is done and that too on such a large scale. Namely, these are:


Photography done because of a person’s passion or hobby or for any other purpose which is not meant for commercial usage is referred to as not for profit photography. A photographer doing such sort of photography is known as an amateur photographer.

Usually, people love to do it because they want to pass a good time or capture some incredible rare moments or to store their memories. The quality of such photographs is generally below to that of professional photography however some amateur photographer’s work is comparable to professional photography and in rare cases, it even surpasses that level.


If photography is done for commercial use or if a photographer is receiving any sort of compensation or commercial benefit from his/her photograph then such sort of photography is referred to as commercial photography.

Usually, commercial photography is of professional quality as it is to be used for various purposes most of which are business related. Some examples of commercial photography purposes are advertisement, food, wildlife, pets, landscapes and/or portraits etc.


Photography done for the purpose of scientific research and development in any sector falls under the head of scientific photography. This type of photography is widely used by scientists and is an important aspect of technological advancement.

On a majority basis, scientific and forensic related photography is used for reference or observing purposes in order to carry out other tasks or to note the results or impact of a certain activity. Unlike other types of photography, this type involves the use of a large number of photography techniques which includes both modes and concepts. In fact, many techniques have solely or initially been derived for serving this purpose only.




One of the most important things of photography is learning about how to take a good picture from whatever resources you have or can afford to fulfill this purpose.

As I stated earlier, photography is an art and in order to become good at it, you need to gain experience which comes from practice.

Generally, the digital technique involving a camera regardless of its type is used for taking up pictures rather than any other techniques of photography. So, here’s a quick photography tutorial for learning how to take a good picture.

  • First of all, I would like to clear off one thing in your mind. In order to succeed in photography expensive equipment is not an absolute necessity rather having a perfect or close to perfect photography technique is much more important. Yes, expensive equipment does help (a lot!) in solving out a lot of issues and is required in the long run but for the beginning level, an average camera will suffice.


  • Before starting with actual photography you need to know about your equipment in detail. With the help of this info, you will achieve a clarity in your mind as to what you can capture from your equipment, what enhancements you can do, what are the drawbacks of your equipment etc. Familiarizing yourself with what you have and what you will be using for clicking pictures is a must before actually working on it.


  • For clicking up those perfect shots you need to work on your body. In other words, you need to work on how you hold your camera and how you use your equipment. Determining and maintaining a great body position for photography is not a big brainer. You just need to make sure that you have complete control and reach of your camera and other photography equipment that you might be using.


  • Once you are all done with your equipment, you need to work on your photography subject. It is important to study about your subject in order to determine various positions in which you can click pictures of it and what enhancements will be required from your equipment’s side as well as on the side of your subject’s surroundings.


  • Next, comes evaluating the lighting of your subject’s area. It’s very crucial to determine and understand the source(s) of light falling upon your subject and its surroundings. You will be needing to adjust either yourself or the source(s) of light or the subject itself (if possible) in order to use the light to your advantage. You must ensure that the subject is illuminated to the best possible extent.


  • At this point, you are all set to take up the picture. But before you do that it is important to work on the focus. You need to set focus right at your subject. This feature is inbuilt in most of the cameras and if your camera does not have this feature then you should consider on changing it. Setting up focus on your subject will highlight your subject in the whole picture which will make it much more appealing.




Photography sounds easy and in actual is quite easy to do. However, many people lack the required skills for taking up a good picture. All over the globe, a vast majority shows an interest in photography either out of their passion or as their profession.

Regardless of whatever the case may be there is always room for some tips and tricks to enhance your skills and when it comes to photography then that room is a lot bigger.

  • Focusing on your subject is one of the most crucial things in photography. A proper focus on your subject enables a completely random person to get the idea of what a picture is all about at the first glance.


  • Working on white balance of your picture is important. It will help in providing the right tone and color intensity to your picture.


  • Always remember that higher the resolution of your picture, higher will be the quality of your picture. However, high-resolution pictures use up a lot of memory so you might want to consider using a big memory card if you are planning to take a lot of high-resolution pictures.


  • Using various angles for clicking a picture is always a great option. Instead of going for the obvious angles try to take the unexpected ones. This will make your picture look more unique, interesting, engaging, and attractive.


  • A small zoom doesn’t hurt much but a big zoom will. Pixels in a photograph tend to break on zooming in which will make your photograph look more blurry. Instead of using the zoom feature, try to increase or decrease your distance from your subject as per the required needs.


  • Many cameras have the feature of gridlines. Gridlines are a great way to balance out a picture and for photography beginners, it’s one of the best options to go for and is highly recommended.


  • A single picture cannot ensure a perfect shot. If you want to take the best shot then instead of clicking just one picture, click up many. You never know which shot might turn out to be the best!


  • Editing software’s are truly a miracle and you should not be afraid of using such software. You can enhance your original picture to “x” number of times using such software’s and what’s even more fascinating is that they are loaded up with tons of useful features. Furthermore, by acquiring extensive knowledge in this sector with the help of photo editing courses you can truly bring out wonders even from average pics. Just make sure to save some extra copies of your pictures before you start editing them.

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